Dispite effective designs that aim to achieve good data, however, some anomolies are introduced during use of the data.
- Discuss attribute semantics as an informal measure of goodness for a relational schema – that is, ways that attributes and be constructed during conception to achieve good data. Illustrate with example
- Discuss Insertion, Deletion, and modification anomolies. Why are they considered bad? Illustrate with examples.
- Why should NULLs in a relation be avoided as much as possible? Discuss the problem of spurious tuples and how to prevent it.
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